[AAP] Important Notice

Important Notice

The following message went out to the Philosophy Pathways e-list two days ago:

"On 31st December 2020 the Pathways to Philosophy web site and all associated web pages will be permanently removed from the web.

"After that date, pages will still be accessible at https://web.archive.org, where you can trace the history of the Pathways web sites all the way back to 1997–8.

"As from now, there will be very few, if any updates. However, all pages will remain in place until the end date.

"Students currently enrolled with Pathways will continue to receive support. However, applications have now been permanently closed.

"I have a huge amount of people to thank for their support over the years. First and foremost, the hundreds of students who have enrolled with Pathways going back to 1995, before Pathways went on the web. For a time, a significant proportion of these students were supported by the Pathways mentors working pro bono. Then there are all the contributors to the Philosophy Pathways and Philosophy for Business e-journals, the Panel of Ask a Philosopher, the Board of the International Society for Philosophers, not to forget all the people who have joined the ISFP since it was founded in 2002.

"Finally, are many other individuals not included in these groups who have corresponded with me, offered their advice, commented on my writings and given unfailing support. I am grateful to you all.

"Why now? That is a far better question than simply, 'Why?' Because everything has a beginning and an end, even (or maybe especially) good things, because I feel now that I have achieved all that I set out to do. Because, I need the maximum amount of time remaining to me to pursue my own personal 'ring quest' in Philosophy."

-- Although all the pages of 'Ask a Philosopher' will be taken down on 31st December, your answers remain your copyright and available to publish on your own blog, if you have one, or in book form as I did with my 'Philosophy Q and A' on Amazon.

Thank you for your service and your dedication to the cause of communicating our love of Philosophy. It has been a great journey.

Geoffrey Klempner


Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Titu Mama

What is the connection between a theory of art and the concept of the world of ideas/ forms?

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Kelly

Using the ethical theory of deontology criticise and evaluate the practice of this technology:

- gene editing
- in vitro fertilization

Answer by Hubertus Fremerey

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Sal bader

I have a question concerning the difference between predication and constitution.

In predication there is something said of another thing so we are talking about a property that belongs to something not something in itself but in constituation. The parts seem to be independent real entities so how could they be united and belong to something or else there won't be one thing really.

So, first, whats the relation between the part and the whole ? And second can we view constitution in a similar way to predication? For example can i say of the the whole after its constitution that the being of the parts now belongs to it and all that the part included itself now belongs to the whole so the parts are said of the whole or the whole is somehow present to all the parts?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ross Campbell

With all the knowledge we have from modern psychology and science do we need ancient philosophy any more? Does it contain any relevant wisdom for us today?

Answer by Graham Hackett

Answer by Peter Jones

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ross Campbell

I have a question . Why has modern philosophy abandoned what was the goal of ancient philosophy namely the pursuit of wisdom? Is this a weakness in modern philosophy or were the ancients misguided?

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from kadekiwala

Suppose one of your friends tells you that the meaning of life is nothing other than "get yours while you can" (take what you can get out of life while you have the opportunity). What philosophical theory of meaning of life does this view belong to? Identify, explain and evaluate that theory.

Answer by Craig Skinner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Haris Waris

Assess postmodernists' idea of meaning. How would the world possibly behave if their idea of meaning is truly implemented? Will it have positive consequence or negative one? Elaborate.

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Haris Waris

Illustrate "Human Nature". Critically discuss the challenge that anti-fundamentalists had offered.
Do you agree with the challenge? If yes, why? If not, why not? Give justification of your argument.

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Husamettin Ozturk

What is the name of the fallacy /cognitive bias (I do not know under which category the attitude I am about to talk about falls) where a person concludes about or scrutinizes occurrences based on what they observe, or in other words, ignoring the root causes or background of an event? To illustrate, (I will try to refrain giving actual examples in order to avoid politicization of the question), if X slaps Y, and Z judges the situation by the way it was reflected to her, neglecting the fact that Y is the one who slapped X for no reason beforehand.

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Melissa

I have a good friend whom I've known since she was born. She grew up in a really religious family, I had no problem with her telling me some things about her belief and God until she met an old friend, who also is from an religious family.

This girl has told me some stories which gave me goosebumps. Things like she had screws in her leg because of a car accident and when they had to operate her leg to get those screws out the doctors said that the screws mysteriously disappeared. Another story was that she ran away from someone and climbed on an old garage roof. The roof collapsed under her feet but with the power of god she was able to jump 2 meters back on the roof.

My friend unfortunately does believe all those stories of her and I feel like she is getting to deep into those things. I hope that you can give me advice or a second opinion on this.

Answer by Geoffrey Klempner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ghadi

What is the type of relationship between philosophy and religion?
Also, what's the thing that philosophy might add to a religious individual?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from douglas rawley

The phrase "the blind leading the blind" is a reference to moral choice. It appears over 100 times in the Bible. Is it possible to reintroduce moral choice effectively to a person? I've found no success. How to pose a moral dilemma to a person in denial?

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz