[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Jack Pepperidge

I wish to begin self-study. My interests are in the field of ethics, politics, and knowledge. How would I establish a curriculum for myself? Is there a predetermined sequence of philosophers that I should study/ read to best teach myself? I feel like if I start without a direction and plan I will spend a lot of time and money studying things that aren't in my area of interest.

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ghadi

Does meaning exist outside the mind?
In another form, is meaning created or does it already exist?
If it exists, how can we distinguish between the created one and the one which exists by itself?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Jack Boulet

For Aquinas' first proof for God's Existence, it seems like he would need to prove that the universe is an essentially subordinated cause. How might one prove this?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Millie Thompson

Who was it that first pointed out that the verification principle fails to stand up to its own criterion?

Answer by Graham Hackett

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Usermail

Are there different types of altruism, and is there anything anyone has ever done that wasn't with themselves or their species in mind? It almost seems like helping those that would lead to our demise is the only certain altruism?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ross Campbell

I'm a graduate in philosophy and I wish to write a book in philosophy . The title I have in mind is "Why Philosophy matters. Asking the Big Questions".

I'm looking for advice as to whether this is a good theme for a book and what topics I should include in the book. I welcome any advice. Thanks.

Answer by Craig Skinner

Answer by Peter Jones

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Salih b

I had an argument with a friend of mine concerning part whole relation, he argues that there cannot be any entity with parts because of a contradiction. Nothing can be many things (so only unities can exist) so for example he says an animal cannot be one for it has diverse parts and so one part say a wing cannot be a hand for it will cease to be a wing and nothing can be many things so nothing can unite these things. So how should I reply?

Answer by Craig Skinner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from jaimie hernandez

Should the U.S engage in other areas of the world if they are in some form of "conflict" or "suffering"?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Saleh Bader

How to stop thinking philosophically about everything? I feel that instead of enjoying life and the things around me I put so much energy and time analyzing them and looking for explanations like thinking in terms of Aristotle's causes or in terms of parts-whole relations and so many 'why' and 'how' questions. So how to lose interest in that or at least how to learn not to put so much energy and time on it?

Answer by Geoffrey Klempner 

Answer by Craig Skinner

[AAP] Fwd: Ask a Philosopher - Question from Mark Hampton

I am trying to come up with a list of normative theories, so far I have:

Teleological (consequentialist) - that evaluate morality in "achievement of some good or avoidance of some bad" (Driver 2005) e.g. egoism, utilitarian, hedonist, evolutionary, despotism, existentialist, situational.

Deontological (duty) - specify a moral quality which is prioritised over the consequences, they do not define the "right in terms of the good" (Driver 2005) e.g. Kantian, contractual, natural rights

Virtue (character) - treat virtues and vices as foundational e.g. eudaemonism

Pragmatist - supplement the practice of other normative approaches, focused on society rather than individuals e.g. moral ecology.

Constructivist - ground morality in human abilities e.g. Kantian, developmental, integral

Ethics of care - emphasizes interdependence and relationships e.g. feminist

Role ethics - e.g. confucianist

Hybrid

Can you please tell me what is wrong or missing?