[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Raghad

How does faith in God work? Is it developed and learned? Or is faith in its truest form blind and never true or authentic?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Stephanie

1) Pick a famous death.

2) Pick a philosopher: either Camus, Locke, Epicurus or Plato.

3) Why did you choose the philosopher you did? What is your initial feeling about what they would say about the famous death?

Answer by Craig Skinner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Shermika

I don't know if I've popped up in the right place... but I'm desperate.

There is a Nietzsche quote, I read it years ago. It is about how humanity is meaningful only to itself. In it he gives a short summary of the human race evolving into existence and then ending, all to the unseeing eyes of an indifferent universe.

I remember it as extremely beautiful and hopeful, even if it's a tad nihilistic. I may be mis-attributing it to Nietzsche. It would be deeply appreciated if you could help me.

Answer by Hubertus Fremerey and Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Saleh bader

Aristotle said matter is the ultimate subject of predication but it cannot exist on its own without any predicate or form for it would be nothing but still we need it as the substratum for predication. My question is why cannot there be a pure subject without any predicate at all like say there is an X without saying any thing about X but we still have it?

Or alternatively why cannot we have a predicate existing as thing without any substratum ? Why subject and predicate must go hand in hand?

Answer by Craig Skinner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from adan majokivic

What would Descartes think about Kant's theory of knowledge?

 Answer by Geoffrey Klempner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ghadi

There are concepts that the understanding of it, is based on a form, and because of that a person might think that he understands the concept itself when in fact he understands a form of it!

How can a person understand the concept itself, ''the source'' rather than understanding a form of it? does the concept have thousands of different forms? how can we distinguish the source from the form?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ghadi

Is the understanding process considered endless?

If so, does this give value to ''repetition'' which may seem on the surface useless with no additions, but it is a chance of a better understanding, to level up?

Is it possible to understand the understanding process?

Answer by Hubertus Fremerey

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Mike Fairburn

I am currently having a discussion with a Young Earth Creationist who posits that the whole question of science is a philosophical one and that the view on evidence is purely philosophical. I don't know how to respond to (what I think) is an absurd argument. Do you have any tips?

Answer by Graham Hackett

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz 

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ghadi

Music -- pure music -- is abstract, in this case is it an abstract stimulation of another abstract?

Although music has meaning, it seems harder to catch than the meaning of a word, the language in general, so what is the difference between music and language? both transfer something, but the level of clarity differs!

That the transference is from an abstract to an abstract and here the issue relies, in determining the meaning, how does it happen?

If this considered as an issue in the first place...

All of a sudden, the idea came to my mind and now I really want to know about it.

Answer by Hubertus Fremerey 

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Bader

My friend used in an argument between us the Parmenidean principle against multiplicity and argued that there cannot be ore than than one instance of the same thing because that's a contradiction and the one would be many. So there cannot be two human beings for example. Now i know it something is wrong here but I've been thinking about the issue and it bothers be because I know something is wrong but I don't know how to answer him, what argument to use and how to explain that multiplicity and many instances of the same thing is possible. So how to argue back and indeed how do philosophers explain this ?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Jacquelyn Myers

What is the 'Ethnocentrism Argument' for Moral Relativism, and how would you raise objections against it?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Nelson S. Weah

'The "Actual" Vs. "Potential" state of things in metaphysics is explained into terms of the causes which act on things.' Discuss.

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Nelson S. Weah

Why do you think philosophy is inevitable and inescapable as a discipline in academic studies?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Charlotte Hanekom

Explain James' three distinctions that relate to the question there is ever a case of moral, rational belief even when one doesn't have the evidence.

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from seth dizzy

This is about the Moral Community and Social Contract Theory:

If we expect contractors to choose rules based on rational self-interest, does this mean that social contract theories are fundamentally flawed?

The tendency to celebrate, condone, or permit self-interest as a justified motivation for creating social contracts: is this the corrupted heart of Atlantis that Plato warned us about? Should we be concerned about Plato's warning (why or why not?) What would have to be done to ensure that a social contract does not experience the kind(s) of social entropy that Plato was concerned about?

There seems to be no reason why contractors would protect non-contractors: e.g. animals, trees, infants, or even rational human beings who (sometimes arbitrarily) aren't contractors. Is this a problem? Why or why not?

Answer by Paul Fagan

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Phil Tanny

A "more is better" relationship with food made sense in the long era when we typically lived near the edge of starvation. Today food is plentiful in much of the world, and where that's true more people die of obesity related diseases than starvation. A "more is better" relationship with food that once was rational now seems simplistic, outdated and dangerous.

Question: Does the analysis above also apply to our relationship with knowledge?

Answer by Geoffrey Klempner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Robert Dawson

What is the age of the Earth if time does not exist?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from bill ball

Does time exist as an entity or is it a man made construct designed to measure the permanence of matter in space? Or is there another explanation?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Shoaib Khan

I am an engineer by profession, but I have a side interest in the philosophy of religion. I was reading J.L. Schellenberg's ¨The Hiddenness Argument" and was interested how he, as an agnostic/atheist, still believes a God would be omnibenevolent. In Chapter 7, he defends God as necessarily loving/ benevolent, which has been the view of most philosophers historically. (I know he distinguishes between love & benevolence in the book, but I am just simplifying). Even some alternative thoughts on God, such as the "maximal God" of Yujin Nagasawa, only disagree with saying that God is "Omnibenevolent" but not with the benevolence aspect itself.

I have very rarely found anyone discussing possibilities of a God who could be morally neutral or even evil. I think Hume may have entertained the former and Stephen law hypothetically posits the latter in his "Evil God Challenge", but overall these seem to be very rare views. Is there a reason for this and are there any modern authors who propose a neutral/ evil diety?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Jamie jones

I don't know whether this is a good question or even if I have used the right words to ask it. Why does it seem in every poll asked on what position people take on belief in a god/ gods do most philosophers accept or lean towards atheism?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Luisa Blanco

Based on Socrates and Nietzsche, is happiness possible without sadness?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Robert Hartness

I have my own view on this topic, but I'd like to hear a philosopher's opinion about whether the decision of aborting an unborn human being raises moral issues, or ethical issues and, if both, which is the dominant answer?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Nguyen Th Phuong Thanh

Could you please give me a summary on Intellection of Philosophy from 17-20th century and clarify the influence of Aristotle's theory of Intellect on it? Many thanks!

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Brianne Childs

My question pertains to Alasdair MacIntyre's 'After Virtue': Nietzsche or Aristotle?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Ritzy Rajaswi

Is Cicero an academic sceptic or a Stoic on the nature of the gods? Or a combination of both? Some people have termed him as an eclectic but that is not true because he does not take anything from the Epicureans. Do you agree?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from kyle price

Gorgias explains that it's not the teacher's fault if the student misuse the power they acquire from oratory of from his teachings. Socrates says this is an inconsistency in his argument regarding oratory. What exactly is the inconsistency? What does Socrates think about the inconsistency and how would he fix it, or what statements would he change to correct it?

Answer by J├╝rgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Jonathan Deno

What are two arguments John Locke uses against innate practical principles?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Kelly Smith

How does Descartes's dream argument and evil deceiver argument challenge an individual's ability to know? How does Descartes uses these doubt arguments to establish the necessity of the "thinking I"?

Explain how God's reality and idea helps Descartes to support belief in the outside world. Do you believe that Descartes' use of God leads to the problem of evil? Do you think this is a serious criticism?