[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Chris

What would drive a person to hurt another intentionally?

Answer by Geoffrey Klempner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Andrew Tulloch

What was Engels' main argument in 'The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State'? And do modern anthropologists agree?

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Charles Christopher

Please, can you briefly explain the paradigm shift of Thomas Kuhn.

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Mia C. Barba

Hello, I am a student in middle school, and due to my unfortunate intellectual immaturity, I'm have trouble understanding dialectical materialism. I have two questions on the subject:

If you ever to look at, for example, Darwin's theory of evolution, through a dialectical materialism thought process, how would your opinion on the subject change?

Why was dialectical materialism created? Did it support a certain political perspective?

Hope to hear from you soon.

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

Answer by Paul Fagan

Answer by Martin Jenkins

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Charles Christopher

Why did Kant say Hume woke him up from his dogmatic slumber? How did he address the challenge Hume posed in respect of the problem of causality? In what sense does this response constitute a basis for Kant's metaphysics?

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

Answer by Martin Jenkins

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Göran Schill

Hi, I wonder if the constant inner monologue I have in my self-conscious mind suggests that there is only one part of myself. When I ask myself if I should grab a beer in the fridge, and I hear one voice saying "yes, nice, you deserve it" and another "no, go to the gym and work on your belly instead", and then there is a will inside me that decides to either close the fridge and go to gym, or open the beer, are these voices and this will just one single unit of myself, or are there two or even three parts of my self-conscious self? One reason I am asking is that I wonder if Plato's tripartite soul may be at work here: the appetitive (have a beer), the rational (go to gym) and the spirited (will to decide either). Or is this just amateurish hairsplitting?

Answer by Graham Hackett

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Cassandra Bolduc

When I was a child, I started asking myself: Why am I me? Why do I exist instead of not existing?

Now as an adult, this question started bothering me again as I started trying for a baby. With each cycle, I wondered, what if I conceive a baby today and not tomorrow? If a baby was to be conceived in any case, they would be a different person depending on if we have sex today or tomorrow.

What if my own parents had had sex on another day? They might have had another child that wouldn't have been me, hence I would have never existed. Of course then I would not have been there to ask the question. But why am I there to ask? What if I didn't exist at all? It's like I'm feeling my own consciousness looking at itself in the mirror for the first time and realizing it exists!

Then it brings me to the idea that if I didn't exist (or when I'll cease to exist when I die), my entire perception of the world will cease to exist too. Then it will be as if the world didn't exist at all, at least from my own point of view (which will be no more!). The/ my entire world will just cease to exist. The real world might as well cease to exist too. This really makes my brain hurt.

It just really freaks me out that I exist instead of not existing. I can't imagine stopping to exist. This fills me with incredible anxiety.

My question actually is: Are there any philosophers who wrote about this? I would very much like to read them and find a bit of comfort in knowing I am not alone with my existential anxiety. I would also like to know more about this kind of double-sided perception of the world, for instance the idea that popped into my head that if I stop existing then the world will stop too (because I won't be there to be conscious of it). I know it's not how reality works but now that I've seen it from this point of view I cannot un-see it.

Answer by Hubertus Fremerey

Answer by Geoffrey Klempner

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Suman Behera

In our nature each and every thing has a formula.In our artificial world each and every thing has an relationship with nature it may be a energy. Means water has a formula H20 by which formula we can prepared water. For 'FAN' we need iron copper and some energy to run it. So do you have some idea about what is the energy to make a soul or a life ? What is the energy required for a soul?

Ex-electricity - moving of electrons called electricity or electric energy.

So what is the formula of a soul?

In my conclusion I want to say that my thought is if we can get the formula of a soul or life then we can alive a dead body and human will never die.

Answer by Jürgen Lawrenz

[AAP] Ask a Philosopher - Question from Sophia Sunyak

My Philosophy professor asked us on the first day of class "who are you?" And everyone just gave descriptors. What is the correct response, or is there even one?